Considerable treasure is believed to have been lost in some shipwrecks that took place on April 13.
1749: Two of the East India Company’s ships were lost during a storm, variously described as a hurricane or a monsoon, that struck the eastern coast of India on April 13, 1749. These wrecks are significant, not only because of the loss of life, but because the East India Company’s ships were usually richly loaded. Both ships were said to have been wrecked between Cuddalore and Fort Saint David.
Also lost in the same storm was the British ship of the line, HMS Pembroke, 60 guns, Captain Thomas Fincher, which was lost near Fort St. David. The Pembroke’s location was also described as on Coldroon Point. A survivor later gave the following account: “At 12:00 p.m. the ship struck rocks about two miles from shore, both fore and aft, but abaft very hard. The third lieutenant was near me when the ship first struck bottom, but I saw no more of him afterwards. I kept to the forecastle, accompanied by the boatswain, cook and about eight men more. I got myself lashed to the bitts before the ship took to heel, but shifted myself over to the other side and lashed myself down just as she started pitching over. About 2:00 p.m. I saw the captain’s cabin washed away and by then the ship was laying on her broadside open to the sea.” The Pembroke was launched in 1733. She was a full rigged ship, 144 feet in length, 39 feet in breadth, sixteen feet 5 inches in depth of hold. She carried twenty-four 24-pounder guns on her gundeck, twenty-six 9-pounders on her upper gundeck, eight 6-pounders on her quarterdeck and two 6-pounders on her forecastle. She had foundered in 1745 but had been raised only to be lost in 1749.
Another loss was HMS Namur, 90 guns, Captain Marshal, which was described as “the finest ship of her size belonging to the Navy of England.” Seven hundred and fifty lives were said to have been lost just on the Namur, which “struck on the Coleroon Shoal and went to pieces with the shock.” She was a ship of the line of the second rate (having three gun decks) and displaced around 2,000 tons. Her guns probably consisted of 32-pounders on her gundeck, 18 pounders on the middle deck, and 12-pounders on her upper deck. She also would have carried lighter guns on her forecastle and quarterdeck. Some accounts give the date of this loss as April 14, 1749.
Many of the survivors of these wrecks were taken prisoner by Mahrattas natives, who stripped them of all their clothing and led them away in chains. They stayed imprisoned until June 1st, when they made their escape by tunneling under the dungeon walls. Three weeks later the survivors finally arrived at Fort Saint David. They were all starving and badly sunburned.
Note One: During this time period, warships were routinely used to transport both government owned and private treasure.
Note Two: From 1748 to 1752, Cuddalore was the capital of the English Possessions on the Coromandal Coast. Fort Saint David was a fort on the River Gadilam and in 1749 was in British hands.
Note Three: Lost the day before (also in the same storm and the same general area as the others), was HMS Apollo, which was variously described as a hospital ship or store ship. For a more detailed account of the Apollo‘s loss, please see the April 12 posting for Today’s Shipwrecks™.
1758: The seventy-six years old British warship, HMS Prince George, 90 guns, accidentally burned at sea in the Bay of Biscay on April 13, 1858. Built by Thomas Shish, in 1682 at Woolwich Dockyard, as the HMS Duke, the Prince George was a ship of the line of the second rate and, after being rebuilt for a second time in 1723 was 1,586 long tons, 164′ in length on her gundeck, 47’2″ in breadth, and 18’10″ in depth of hull. She mounted twenty-six 32-pounders on her gundeck, twenty-six 18-pounders on her middle gundeck, twenty-six 9-pounders on her upper gundeck, ten 6-pounders on her quarterdeck, and two 6-pounders on her forecastle.
1790: The brig rigged French transport Emannuel foundered on April 13, 1790 west of Plouharnel, Brittany France.
1800: The French navy transport Diligence, Captain Jamois, was sunk when it hit one of the Pen Azen rocks, 1/2 mile from Île-de-Bréhat during a storm on April 13, 1790. All 29 of her people were saved. She was described as a flute ship, which meant she was a warship used as a transport, with a reduced armament. She was traveling as part of a convoy bound from Bordeau to Cherbourg, France and was said to have been carrying a load of old copper. Île-de-Bréhatis an island located near Paimpol, a mile off the northern coast of Brittany. Note by ELS: Because of the terminology used during this time period and the geopolitical events going on, I suspect that part or even all of the “old copper” may have been in the form of bronze cannons.
1917: The British cargo ship Argyll, 3,547 gross tons, bound from Port Kelah to Middlesbrough with a cargo of iron was torpedoed without warning and sunk by a German submarine on April 13, 1917. Her location was given as 110 miles W from Bishop Rock. Her captain was saved, but twenty-two lives were lost. Its likely that the reason no warning was given that the ship was about to be sunk was because the Argyll had been defensively armed and would have been was considered too dangerous to give the then common courtesy of such a warning. The Argyll was built by William Doxford and Sons in 1901 and had a triple expansion steam engine.
1917: The defensively-armed cargo ship Bandon, 1,456 gross tons, Captain P.F. Kelly, bound from Liverpool to Cork with a general cargo, was torpedoed without warning and sunk by the German submarine UC-34 on April 13, 1917. The SS Bandon’s position was given as 2½ miles southwest from Mine Head, Ireland. Captain Kelly and three others were saved, but twenty-eight crew members were lost. Note: This wreck has been located. To see a picture of her and read more about the vessel and wreck see: http://www.infomar.ie/data/Shipwrecks/Box42/pdfs/Bandon_Final.pdf.
1917: The British schooner Maria, 175 gross tons, bound from Glasgow to Cherbourg with a cargo of coal, was captured by a German submarine and scuttled with explosives on April 13, 1917. Her location was described as twenty-five miles South by West from Portland Bill. She was built in 1865 by Harvey & Company in Hayle and at the time of her loss was owned by Kellow W.V. Fowey in Cornwall.
1917: The defensively-armed, British passenger/cargo ship Zara, 1,331 gross tons, Captain G. Nicoll, bound from London to Tronhjem with a general cargo, was torpedoed without warning and sunk by the German submarine U-30 on April 13, 1917. Her location was given as “60.08N 01 .52E”, ninety miles West ¾ West from Helliso Island, Norway. Twenty-seven lives were lost. The Zara had a single screw powered by a triple expansion steam engine of 232 nominal horsepower. She was built by William Hamilton & Company in Glasgow in 1897 and her official number was 106747.
Question and note by ELS: Could they have meant the Zara was in latitude 60°08′ north, longitude 01°52′ east? Another source described her as in a maximum of 110 meters (358 feet) of water, but didn’t say whether the wreck had been located or that was based on charting information.
1819: A Dutch brig, bound from Hamburg to Havana, was wrecked about April 13, 1819, “on the Grand Caicos.” Bob Marx lists this vessel as having a “valuable cargo of silks.”
1838: The brig Matanzas, of Providence for Mobile, was wrecked on Berry Island in the Bahamas on April 13, 1838.
1854: The Nassau papers of April 12, 1853 stated that “within the last fortnight, it is estimated, that about $400,000 worth of wrecked property has been lost on our shores owing to the weather.” (Note by ELS: If figured based solely on the relative values of gold, then and now, this loss would be over $32,000,000. This is not to say that gold was lost, just that the values would have been equal to this amount.)
1911: The Canadian schooner Foster Rice was totally wrecked at San Domingo on April 13, 1911. She was built in 1899 at Weymouth in Nova Scotia, Canada. She had a wood hull with no figurehead. Her tonnage was reported as 203 gross and 179 net. Her official number was 107602. Her home port was Weymouth, Nova Scotia.
1916: The British cargo ship Chic was torpedoed and sunk on April 13, 1916, in the Atlantic Ocean 45 nautical miles (83 km) south west of the Fastnet Rock by the German submarine U-22. Nine of the Chic’s crew were lost.
1916: The Italian cargo ship Lipari, 1539 gross tons, was shelled and sunk in the Mediterranean Sea on April 13, 1916 by the German submarine U-39. The Lipari’s entire crew survived. Her position was reported as in latitude 36°00′ north, longitude 16°49′ east, thirty-six nautical miles (67 km) off Cape Spartivento, Calabria, on the island of Sardinia, Italy.
1917: The Uruguayan steamer Gorizia, which had sailed from New York on January 10, 1917, bound for Falmouth, England, and other European ports, was stopped by a German submarine and in the English Channel at 3:45 the afternoon of April 13, 1917. After letting her crew to launch her lifeboats, the Germans boarded her and placed timed bombs on her and scuttled her. There were no casualties. The location of her sinking was described as about 20 miles southwest of Portland Bill. Her cargo consisted of cotton, brass, tin and machinery.
1918: At 7:00 in the morning of April 13, 1818, the armed British merchant steamer Harewood, bound from New York to Gibraltar with a general cargo, was shelled by the German submarine U-155, commanded by Erich Eckelmann, about 430 miles west of Gibraltar. The location of the sinking was also reported as “37.10N, 16.50W”; “37.20N, 16.59W” and as “380 miles west by south” of Lisbon, Portugal.
She attempted to defend herself with her deck guns, and used smoke bombs to conceal her movements, but within an hour and a half she had been hit eight times, her captain was seriously wounded and her guns disabled. After that her crew abandoned ship. The Germans approached and complimented the British on their resistance, gave aid to wounded, and shared weather and sailing information to them to help get them to safety. She steamer was then boarded and scuttled, with the steamer sinking stern first. Her cargo included 594,925 pounds of brass ingots.
The SS Harewood, 4,150 tons, was built in 1913 by J. L. Thompson & Sons, Ltd., Sunderland, and was owned in London.
1942: The British tanker Empire Amethyst, Master Geoffrey Durbridge Potter, bound from New Orleans to the United Kingdom, was struck in her forward section by one of two torpedoes fired from the German submarine U-154, commanded by Walther Kölle, on April 13, 1942. She was carrying 12,000 tons of “motor spirit” and sank in flames. Captain Potter, 45 crew members and one gunner were lost. There were no survivors.
The location of her sinking was described as about forty miles south of Haiti and as at latitude 17°40’ North, longitude 74°50’ West, it was also given as Grid EC 6299.
The Empire Amethyst was built in 1941 at Furness Shipbuilding Ltd., Haverton Hill-on-Tees, United Kingdom, for the Ministry of War Transport. She was a steel hulled steamer of 8,032 tons. She was owned by Hadley Shipping Co Ltd. of London. Her home port was Middlesbrough.
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NOTE: This is by no means meant to be a complete list of the vessels lost on April 13, as there have been thousands of ships lost for every day of the year. All of the above entries have been edited (shortened) and come from various editions of Spence’s List™. The original lists usually give additional data and sources. Those lists are being updated and are or will be made available for a fee elsewhere on this site.
© 2013 by Dr. E. Lee Spence for composition, content and compilation.Share